source: Electronics Weekly article
High Conductivity Copper for Electrical Engineering is an e-book from the Copper Development Association which describes the electrical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys for use in electrical applications – from inside chips to industrial bus bars.
“High conductivity copper is the best choice for bulk electrical conductors such as cables, motor windings and bus bars,” said the Association. “There are, however, many electrical accessories – including terminations, connectors, contactors and circuit breakers – where material properties beyond conductivity are equally, or more important. For these applications, a wide range of copper alloys are available, offering, for example, enhanced strength, or resistance to stress relaxation or creep, while retaining excellent conductivity.”
Section 4 describes copper alloys for semiconductor lead frames, and also discusses oxidation and corrosion. “The development of more advanced microchips has required the production of copper alloys as lead frame materials, with properties that provide long, reliable life at elevated temperatures,” said the Association.
Section 2 covers the mechanical and physical properties of copper, and the effect of impurities and minor alloying additions on copper’s conductivity.
It describes the various types of high conductivity copper in existence today, and looks at production methods, with chapters on cathode copper and refinery shapes.
Section 3 describes the wide variety of alloying elements that can expand copper’s inherent properties – adding higher tensile strength, increased softening temperature, lower creep, better wear resistance or easier machinability – to suit different applications.
Alloys discussed are divided into heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable.
High Conductivity Copper for Electrical Engineering can be downloaded here.